A game-based approach to promoting adaptive rational number knowledge

Jake McMullen, Antti Koskinen, Tomi Kärki, Antero Lindstedt, Saku Määttä, Hilma Halme, Erno Lehtinen, Minna M. Hannula-Sormunen, Kristian Kiili

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Adaptive expertise is a highly sought after, but difficult to achieve, outcome of mathematics education. Many teaching methods appear to support the development of adaptive expertise only in a small proportion of students. Game-based learning environments may be useful for supporting adaptive expertise. Therefore, we carried out a quasi-experimental classroom intervention to examine the possibility of using a game-based learning environment to promote adaptive rational number knowledge, a potential indicator of adaptive expertise in the domain of rational numbers. The Number Line Elaboration and Exploration learning environment relied on the increasing elaboration of the number line analogy as a means for students to explore connections between multiple aspects of rational number knowledge. Our results show the game-based learning environment was successful in promoting adaptive rational number knowledge. These results provide directions for the development and examination of how learning environments may be able to support adaptive expertise.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Feb 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • adaptive expertise
  • classroom intervention
  • game-based learning
  • Rational numbers

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Mathematics
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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