A high-conductivity n-type polymeric ink for printed electronics

Chi Yuan Yang, Marc Antoine Stoeckel, Tero Petri Ruoko, Han Yan Wu, Xianjie Liu, Nagesh B. Kolhe, Ziang Wu, Yuttapoom Puttisong, Chiara Musumeci, Matteo Massetti, Hengda Sun, Kai Xu, Deyu Tu, Weimin M. Chen, Han Young Woo, Mats Fahlman, Samson A. Jenekhe, Magnus Berggren, Simone Fabiano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

138 Citations (Scopus)


Conducting polymers, such as the p-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), have enabled the development of an array of opto- and bio-electronics devices. However, to make these technologies truly pervasive, stable and easily processable, n-doped conducting polymers are also needed. Despite major efforts, no n-type equivalents to the benchmark PEDOT:PSS exist to date. Here, we report on the development of poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline):poly(ethyleneimine) (BBL:PEI) as an ethanol-based n-type conductive ink. BBL:PEI thin films yield an n-type electrical conductivity reaching 8 S cm−1, along with excellent thermal, ambient, and solvent stability. This printable n-type mixed ion-electron conductor has several technological implications for realizing high-performance organic electronic devices, as demonstrated for organic thermoelectric generators with record high power output and n-type organic electrochemical transistors with a unique depletion mode of operation. BBL:PEI inks hold promise for the development of next-generation bioelectronics and wearable devices, in particular targeting novel functionality, efficiency, and power performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2354
Number of pages8
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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