A Survey of Selected Indoor Positioning Methods for Smartphones

Pavel Davidson, Robert Piche

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    411 Citations (Scopus)
    5785 Downloads (Pure)


    This paper provides an overview of the most significant existing methods for indoor positioning on a contemporary smartphone. The approaches include Wi-Fi and Bluetooth based positioning, magnetic field fingerprinting, map aided navigation using building floor plans, and aiding from self-contained sensors. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth based positioning methods considered in this survey are fingerprint approaches that determine a user’s position using a database of radio signal strength measurements that were collected earlier at known locations. Magnetic field fingerprinting can be used in an information fusion algorithm to improve positioning. The map-matching algorithms include application of wall constraints, topological indoor maps, and building geometry for heading correction. Finally, methods for step counting, step length and direction estimation, orientation tracking, motion classification, transit mode detection, and floor change detection in multi-storey buildings are discussed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1347-1370
    Number of pages45
    JournalIEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
    Issue number2
    Early online date2016
    Publication statusPublished - 2017
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • BLE
    • IMU
    • Indoor positioning
    • WLAN
    • fingerprinting
    • magnetometer
    • map-matching

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 2


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