Additive manufactured 316l stainless-steel samples: Microstructure, residual stress and corrosion characteristics after post-processing

Suvi Santa-Aho, Mika Kiviluoma, Tuomas Jokiaho, Tejas Gundgire, Mari Honkanen, Mari Lindgren, Minnamari Vippola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
252 Downloads (Pure)


Additive manufacturing (AM) is a relatively new manufacturing method that can produce complex geometries and optimized shapes with less process steps. In addition to distinct microstructural features, residual stresses and their formation are also inherent to AM components. AM components require several post-processing steps before they are ready for use. To change the traditional manufacturing method to AM, comprehensive characterization is needed to verify the suitability of AM components. On very demanding corrosion atmospheres, the question is does AM lower or eliminate the risk of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) compared to welded 316L components? This work concentrates on post-processing and its influence on the microstructure and surface and subsurface residual stresses. The shot peening (SP) post-processing levelled out the residual stress differences, producing compressive residual stresses of more than −400 MPa in the AM samples and the effect exceeded an over 100 µm layer below the surface. Post-processing caused grain refinement and low-angle boundary formation on the sample surface layer and silicon carbide (SiC) residue adhesion, which should be taken into account when using the components. Immersion tests with four-point-bending in the heated 80 °C magnesium chloride solution for SCC showed no difference between AM and reference samples even after a 674 h immersion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number182
Number of pages16
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 316L stainless-steel
  • Additive manufacturing (AM)
  • Electron microscopy
  • Post-processing
  • Powder methods
  • Residual stresses

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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