Adjustment of Insulin Pump Settings in Type 1 Diabetes Management: Advisor Pro Device Compared to Physicians’ Recommendations

Revital Nimri, Tal Oron, Ido Muller, Ivana Kraljevic, Montserrat Martín Alonso, Päivi Keskinen, Tanja Milicic, Asaf Oren, Athanasios Christoforidis, Marieke den Brinker, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Andrea Mario Bolla, Michal Krcma, Rosa Anna Rabini, Shadi Tabba, Lizl Smith, Andriani Vazeou, Giulio Maltoni, Elisa Giani, Eran AtlasMoshe Phillip

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


    Aims: To compare insulin dose adjustments made by physicians to those made by an artificial intelligence-based decision support system, the Advisor Pro, in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using an insulin pump and self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG). Methods: This was a multinational, non-interventional study surveying 17 physicians from 11 countries. Each physician was asked to provide insulin dose adjustments for the settings of the pump including basal rate, carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios (CRs), and correction factors (CFs) for 15 data sets of pumps and SMBG of people with T1D (mean age 18.4 ± 4.8 years; eight females; mean glycated hemoglobin 8.2% ± 1.4% [66 ± 11mmol/mol]). The recommendations were compared among the physicians and between the physicians and the Advisor Pro. The study endpoint was the percentage of comparison points for which there was an agreement on the direction of insulin dose adjustments. Results: The percentage (mean ± SD) of agreement among the physicians on the direction of insulin pump dose adjustments was 51.8% ± 9.2%, 54.2% ± 6.4%, and 49.8% ± 11.6% for the basal, CR, and CF, respectively. The automated recommendations of the Advisor Pro on the direction of insulin dose adjustments were comparable)49.5% ± 6.4%, 55.3% ± 8.7%, and 47.6% ± 14.4% for the basal rate, CR, and CF, respectively(and noninferior to those provided by physicians. The mean absolute difference in magnitude of change between physicians was 17.1% ± 13.1%, 14.6% ± 8.4%, and 23.9% ± 18.6% for the basal, CR, and CF, respectively, and comparable to the Advisor Pro 11.7% ± 9.7%, 10.1% ± 4.5%, and 25.5% ± 19.5%, respectively, significant for basal and CR. Conclusions: Considerable differences in the recommendations for changes in insulin dosing were observed among physicians. Since automated recommendations by the Advisor Pro were similar to those given by physicians, it could be considered a useful tool to manage T1D.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Diabetes Science and Technology
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2020
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Advisor Pro
    • automated decision support
    • insulin pump settings adjustments
    • self-monitoring of blood glucose
    • type 1 diabetes

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 1

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Internal Medicine
    • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
    • Bioengineering
    • Biomedical Engineering


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