Air-Induced Passive Intermodulation in FDD MIMO Systems: Algorithms and Measurements

Vesa Lampu, Lauri Anttila, Matias Turunen, Marko Fleischer, Jan Hellmann, Mikko Valkama

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In this article, we model and develop effective cancellation schemes for passive intermodulation (PIM) distortion induced by external objects in the vicinity of the transmitter—referred to as air-induced PIM—in frequency-division duplex (FDD) multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) systems. PIM is interference generated from the transmitted signals undergoing nonlinear transformation, which, in FDD systems, may cause desensitization of the receiver chain. First, we present a general model of the received air-induced PIM signal, with an arbitrary number of dual-carrier TX chains active and an arbitrary number of PIM sources causing interference, on all the intermodulation frequencies. Then, the derived model is used to develop a cancellation scheme based on a complete set of basis functions (BFs) in a rank-2 dual-carrier MIMO system with four active carriers. To alleviate the high complexity of the aforementioned scheme, we then propose a novel alternative cancellation scheme with much reduced complexity, leveraging on the physical modeling of the system, which is capable of handling any number of PIM sources in the system. RF measurement-based experimentations carried out with real-life equipment evidence excellent cancellation capabilities of the complete BF model, which can be retained with much reduced complexity with the proposed alternative technique.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-388
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number1
Early online date23 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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