Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube-embodied hydrogel via low magnetic field: A strategy for engineering aligned injectable scaffolds

Muthusamy Saranya, Janne T. Koivisto, Ana C.M. Carvalho, Fernando Sato, Andrea Lassenberger, Lionel Porcar, Baleeswaraiah Muchharla, Saikat Talapatra, Birgitte H. McDonagh, Lauriane Janssen, Olli Pitkänen, Minna Kellomäki, Krisztian Kordas, Gabriela S. Lorite

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    Injectable scaffolds are a promising strategy to restore and regenerate damaged and diseased tissues. They require minimally invasive procedure and allow the formation of an in-situ structure of any shape. However, the formation of 3D in-situ structure with aligned morphologies using a method which could be easily transferred to clinical settings remains a challenge. Herein, the rational design of an aligned injectable hydrogel-based scaffold via remote-induced alignment is reported. Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT) are aligned into hydrogel via low magnetic field. The uniform dispersion and alignment of cMWCNT into the hydrogel are clearly demonstrated by small angle neutron scattering. The obtained aligned cMWCNT-embodied hydrogel is stable over 7 days at room temperature and as well at body temperature (i.e. 37 °C). As unique approach, the formation of MWCNT-hydrogel composite is investigated combining rheology with molecular dynamic and quantum mechanical calculations. The increase of MWCNT concentration into the hydrogel decreases the total energy promoting structural stabilization and increase of stiffness. The remote aligning of injectable hydrogel-based scaffold opens up horizons in the engineering of functional tissues which requires specific cell orientation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number110398
    Number of pages11
    JournalComposites Part B: Engineering
    Early online date9 Nov 2022
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Alignment
    • Carbon nanotubes
    • Hydrogels
    • Injectable scaffolds
    • Magnetic field

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 2

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Ceramics and Composites
    • Mechanics of Materials
    • Mechanical Engineering
    • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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