An Overview on Blockchain for Smartphones: State-of-the-Art, Consensus, Implementation, Challenges and Future Trends

Aleksandr Ometov, Yulia Bardinova, Alexandra Afanasyeva, Pavel Masek, Konstantin Zhidanov, Sergey Vanurin, Mikhail Sayfullin, Viktoriia Shubina, Mikhail Komarov, Sergey Bezzateev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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The blockchain technology is currently penetrating different areas of the modern Information and Communications Technology community. Most of the devices involved in blockchain-related processes are specially designed targeting only the mining aspect, i.e., solving the computational puzzle task. At the same time, the use of wearable and mobile devices may also become a part of eCommerce blockchain operation, especially during the on-charge time. The paper considers the possibility of using a large number of constrained devices to support the operation of the blockchain with a low impact on battery consumption. The utilization of such devices is expected to improve the system efficiency as well as to attract a more substantial number of users. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge with a survey of the main applications of blockchain for smartphones along with existing mobile blockchain projects. It also proposes a novel consensus protocol based on a combination of Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Activity (PoA), and Proof-of-Stake (PoS) algorithms for efficient and on-the-fly utilization on resource-constrained devices. The system was deployed in a worldwide testnet with more than two thousand smartphones and compared with other projects from the user-experienced metrics perspective. The results prove that the utilization of PoA systems on a smartphone does not significantly affect the lifetime of the smartphone battery while existing methods based on PoW have a tremendous negative impact. Finally, the main open challenges and future investigation directions are outlined.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103994-104015
Number of pages22
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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