Antidiabetic drugs, glycemic control and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Background: Diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the role of antidiabetic drugs as a BPH risk factor is unclear. The objective of our study was to examine the risk of BPH by antidiabetic drug use and glycemic control in a large population-based cohort of Finnish men. Methods: A total of 74,754 men in the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC) free of BPH at baseline in 1996–1999 were linked to the national medication reimbursement database for information on physician-prescribed antidiabetic drug purchases. Information on recorded BPH procedures and diagnoses was obtained from the National Care Register for Health Care, and for a subgroup of 17,739 men, information on blood glucose levels (BGLs) from the Fimlab Laboratories database. Cox regression with antidiabetic drug use and BGL as time-dependent variables was used to analyze the risks for starting BPH medication, recorded BPH diagnosis, and undergoing BPH surgery. The analysis was adjusted for age, use of statins, antihypertensive medication, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Results: Of the subjects, 14,012 men (18.7%) used antidiabetic medication. Of the subgroup with fasting blood glucose data available, 7487 (42.2%) had diabetic level. The risks for BPH diagnosis (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03–1.13) and surgery (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.09–1.24) were slightly elevated among antidiabetic drug users compared to nonusers. The association was strongest for insulin use. Similarly, risk of BPH surgery was increased in men with diabetic blood glucose compared to normoglycemic men. The risk association was attenuated by use of antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: Diabetic BGL and antidiabetic medication use, especially insulin, are associated with an elevated risk of BPH surgery compared to nondiabetic men. These findings support the roles of insulin use and untreated hyperglycemia as possible BPH risk factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-258
Number of pages13
JournalThe Prostate
Issue number3
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • antidiabetic drugs
  • benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • blood glucose
  • cohort
  • risk

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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