Are architectural smells independent from code smells? An empirical study

Francesca Arcelli Fontana, Valentina Lenarduzzi, Riccardo Roveda, Davide Taibi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


Background. Architectural smells and code smells are symptoms of bad code or design that can cause different quality problems, such as faults, technical debt, or difficulties with maintenance and evolution. Some studies show that code smells and architectural smells often appear together in the same file. The correlation between code smells and architectural smells, however, is not clear yet; some studies on a limited set of projects have claimed that architectural smells can be derived from code smells, while other studies claim the opposite. Objective. The goal of this work is to understand whether architectural smells are independent from code smells or can be derived from a code smell or from one category of them. Method. We conducted a case study analyzing the correlations among 19 code smells, six categories of code smells, and four architectural smells. Results. The results show that architectural smells are correlated with code smells only in a very low number of occurrences and therefore cannot be derived from code smells. Conclusion. Architectural smells are independent from code smells, and therefore deserve special attention by researchers, who should investigate their actual harmfulness, and practitioners, who should consider whether and when to remove them.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-156
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Systems and Software
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Architectural smells
  • Code smells
  • Empirical analysis
  • Technical debt

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture

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