Assessing the Effect of Infill Strategies on Hardness Properties of Cuboidal Parts Printed with Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) has gained prominence in its utilization in the manufacturing industry due to its ability to build large functional components at high deposition rates. Among the different metal additive manufacturing processes, WAAM has the potential for adoption in the industry due to the ease with which the system can be integrated into factory’s robotic welding cells. The ability to develop 3D components using welding has opened possibilities for redesigning and envisioning new product designs. However, there are still challenges related to ensuring process quality with WAAM. Path planning strategies have tremendous effects on structural integrity, mechanical and microstructural properties of the components. The current research aims to experimentally investigate the effect of different infill strategies on the hardness of cuboidal parts in WAAM. The experimental work uses high-strength low-alloy steel as the material of choice. These steels are found in many high-stress applications, such as automotive, load-bearing structures, and low-temperature applications that require a high strength-to-weight ratio. The study reported herein comprises of testing three different infill patterns and their impact on the final part performance (geometric, microscopic defects, and Vickers’ hardness). It was observed that all three strategies ensured a stable deposition process, yet with micro and macro defects. Lack of fusion defects and pores were identified in one of the infill strategies through microscopic evaluation. The hardness mapping showed uniform properties in separate planes for all printing strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTowards a Smart, Resilient and Sustainable Industry - Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Industrial Engineering and Automation ISIEA 2023
EditorsYuri Borgianni, Dominik T. Matt, Margherita Molinaro, Guido Orzes
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-38274-1
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-38273-4
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Publication typeA4 Article in conference proceedings
EventInternational Symposium on Industrial Engineering and Automation - Bolzano, Italy
Duration: 22 Jun 202323 Jun 2023

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Networks and Systems
Volume745 LNNS
ISSN (Print)2367-3370
ISSN (Electronic)2367-3389


ConferenceInternational Symposium on Industrial Engineering and Automation
Abbreviated titleISIEA


  • Infill strategy
  • Mechanical properties evaluation
  • Robot path planning
  • Wire arc additive manufacturing

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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