Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of Two Starting Doses of Lenvatinib Plus Everolimus in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Randomized Phase 2 Trial

Sumanta K. Pal, Javier Puente, Daniel Y.C. Heng, Hilary Glen, Piotr Koralewski, Daniil Stroyakovskiy, Boris Alekseev, Francis Parnis, Daniel Castellano, Tudor Ciuleanu, Jae Lyun Lee, Kaisa Sunela, Karen O'Hara, Terri A. Binder, Lixian Peng, Alan D. Smith, Sun Young Rha

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    Background: Lenvatinib (18 mg) plus everolimus (5 mg) is approved for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after one or more prior antiangiogenic therapies. Objective: To assess whether a lower starting dose of lenvatinib has comparable efficacy with improved tolerability for patients with advanced RCC treated with lenvatinib plus everolimus. Design, setting, and participants: A randomized, open-label, phase 2 global trial was conducted in patients with advanced clear cell RCC and disease progression after one prior vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy (prior anti–programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 therapy permitted). Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to the 14- or 18-mg lenvatinib starting dose, both in combination with everolimus 5 mg/d. Patients in the 14-mg arm were to be uptitrated to lenvatinib 18 mg at cycle 2, day 1, barring intolerable grade 2 or any grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) requiring dose reduction occurring in the first 28-d cycle. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The primary efficacy endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR) as of week 24 (ORRwk24); the noninferiority threshold of the 14- versus 18-mg arm was p ≤ 0.045. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of patients with intolerable grade 2 or any grade ≥3 TEAEs within 24 wk of randomization. Results and limitations: The ORRwk24 for the 14-mg arm (32% [95% confidence interval {CI} 25–39]) was not noninferior to the ORRwk24 in the 18-mg arm (35% [95% CI 27–42]; odds ratio: 0.88; 90% CI 0.59–1.32; p = 0.3). The proportion of intolerable grade 2 or any grade ≥3 TEAEs was similar between the two arms (14 mg, 83% vs 18 mg, 80%; p = 0.5). The secondary endpoints of overall ORR, progression-free survival, and overall survival numerically favored the 18-mg arm. A limitation of this study was that the study design did not allow for a full comparison of progression-free survival between treatment arms. Conclusions: The study findings support the approved dosing regimen of lenvatinib 18 mg plus everolimus 5 mg daily for patients with advanced RCC. Patient summary: In this report, we examined two doses of lenvatinib (the approved 18-mg dose and a lower dose of 14 mg) in people with advanced renal cell carcinoma to determine whether the lower dose (which was increased to the approved 18-mg dose after the first treatment cycle) could improve safety without affecting efficacy. The results showed that the efficacy of the lower lenvatinib dose (14 mg) was not the same as that of the approved (18 mg) dose, although safety results were similar, so the approved lenvatinib 18-mg dose should still be used.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalEuropean Urology
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2022
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Efficacy
    • Lenvatinib plus everolimus
    • Phase 2 trial
    • Renal cell carcinoma
    • Safety
    • Starting dose

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 3

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Urology


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