Association between Computed Tomography-Determined Loss of Muscle Mass and Impaired Three-Month Survival in Frail Older Adults with Cancer

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Abstract

As patients with solid (non-hematological) cancers and a life expectancy of <3 months rarely benefit from oncological treatment, we examined whether the CT-determined loss of muscle mass is associated with an impaired 3-month overall survival (OS) in frail ≥75-year-old patients with cancer. Frailty was assessed with G8-screening and comprehensive geriatric assessment in older adults at risk of frailty. The L3-level skeletal (SMI) and psoas (PMI) muscle indexes were determined from routine CT scans. Established and optimized SMI and PMI cut-offs were used. In the non-curative treatment group (n = 58), 3-month OS rates for normal and low SMI were 95% and 64% (HR 9.28; 95% CI 1.2–71) and for PMI 88%, and 60%, respectively (HR 4.10; 1.3–13). A Cox multivariable 3-month OS model showed an HR of 10.7 (1.0–110) for low SMI, 2.34 (0.6–9.8) for ECOG performance status 3–4, 2.11 (0.5–8.6) for clinical frailty scale 5–9, and 0.57 (0.1–2.8) for males. The 24-month OS rates in the curative intent group (n = 21) were 91% and 38% for the normal and low SMI groups, respectively. In conclusion, CT-determined low muscle mass is independently associated with an impaired 3-month OS and, alongside geriatric assessment, could aid in oncological versus best supportive care decision-making in frail patients with non-curable cancers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3398
Number of pages18
JournalCancers
Volume15
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • cancer
  • computed tomography
  • frailty
  • loss of muscle mass
  • older adults
  • sarcopenia

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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