Best Practices in the whole-of-society approach in countering hybrid threats

Mikael Wigell, Harri Mikkola, Tapio Juntunen

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report


Over recent years, the European Union has increased efforts to strengthen its resilience to hybrid threats. A model of preparedness based on the notions of ‘whole-of-society’, ‘whole-of-government’ and ‘societal resilience’ has gained ground in the EU’s policy work. Although some progress has been made, many obstacles and challenges remain. The EU needs to address conceptual questions involved with the mapping of hybrid threats to facilitate targeted and effective countermeasures, as well as initiatives to improve societal resilience. Although the EU recognises the strategic value of resilience, the concept’s precise meaning and level of added value remain vague. Its exact relationship to national preparedness and hybrid threats, as well as the whole-of society approach requires clarification. In addition to addressing these issues, this study analyses some best practices from the whole-of-society approach by examining action taken by Finland, Sweden and Australia in this regard. The study also provides recommendations for further actions.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationBrussels
Commissioning bodyEuropean Parliament's Special Committee on Foreign Interference in all Democratic Processes in the European Union, including Disinformation (INGE)
Number of pages50
ISBN (Electronic)978-92-846-7991-1
Publication statusPublished - 6 May 2021
Publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study


  • Hybrid Threats
  • Hybrid interference
  • resilience
  • societal security
  • security
  • Deterrence
  • Dissuasion


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