Calculation of Safety Factors of the Eurocodes

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This study concerns the safety factor and the reliability calculation for structural codes. The Eurocodes are used as a reference. Safety factor calculation is a demanding task which necessitates using an appropriate root-solving algorithm with a sufficient numerical accuracy. This article introduces a simple algorithm to calculate the safety factors directly, as previously there has been no means to control the accuracy. Presently, the safety factors are defined indirectly through the reliability index. The basic safety factor calculation is presented here in six different equations with the same outcome but differences regarding the numerical calculation, which provides a method to check the accuracy and select a proper equation for the root solver. The safety factor calculation for the permanent and the variable load in the Eurocodes is based on the independent, i.e., random, load combination and single load pairs. The current approach of safety factor calculation applied in the Eurocodes is disclosed here. Simple analytical equations based on the convolution equation are presented. Those can be used instead of the computer programs applied currently.
Original languageEnglish
Article number208
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number1
Early online date23 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • safety factor
  • reliability
  • independent load combination
  • structural code

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1


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