Carbonic Anhydrases II and IX in Non-ampullary Duodenal Adenomas and Adenocarcinoma

Minna Nortunen, Seppo Parkkila, Juha Saarnio, Heikki Huhta, Tuomo J. Karttunen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Non-ampullary duodenal adenocarcinoma (DAC) is a rare malignancy. Little information is available concerning the histopathological prognostic factors associated with DAC. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metalloenzymes catalyzing the universal reaction of CO2 hydration. Isozymes CAII, CAIX, and CAXII are associated with prognosis in various cancers. Our aim was to analyze the immunohistochemical expressions of CAII, CAIX, and CAXII in normal duodenal epithelium, duodenal adenomas, and adenocarcinoma and their associations with clinicopathological variables and survival. Our retrospective study included all 27 DACs treated in Oulu University Hospital during years 2000–2020. For comparison, samples of 42 non-ampullary adenomas were collected. CAII expression was low in duodenal adenomas and adenocarcinoma. CAIX expression in adenomas and adenocarcinoma was comparable with the high expression of normal duodenal crypts. Expression patterns in carcinomas were largely not related to clinicopathological features. However, low expression of CAII associated with poorer differentiation of the tumor (p=0.049) and low expression of CAIX showed a trend for association with nodal spread, although statistical significance was not reached (p=0.091). CAII and CAIX lost their epithelial polarization and staining intensity in adenomas. CAXII expression was not detected in the studied samples. CAs were not associated with survival. The prognostic value of CAII and CAIX downregulation should be further investigated. Both isozymes may serve as biomarkers of epithelial dysplasia in the duodenum. (J Histochem Cytochem XX: XXX–XXX, XXXX).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)677-690
Issue number11
Early online dateOct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • CAII
  • CAIX
  • duodenal adenoma
  • non-ampullary duodenal adenocarcinoma

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Histology


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