Since the beginning of the fifth generation (5G) standardization process, positioning has been considered as a key element in future cellular networks. In order to perform accurate positioning, solutions for estimating and processing location-related measurements such as direction of arrival (DoA) and time of arrival (ToA) for various use-cases need to be developed. In this paper, building on the existing 5G new radio (NR) specifications and millimeter wave frequencies, we propose a novel estimation and tracking solution of the DoA and ToA such that only analog/radio frequency (RF) beamforming-based observations are utilized. In addition to the proposed extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based estimation and tracking approach, we derive Cramér-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) for the considered RF multi-beam system, and propose an information-based criterion for selecting the necessary beams for the estimation process in order to provide highly accurate performance with feasible computational complexity. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using extensive ray-tracing simulations and numerical evaluations, and the results are compared with other estimation and beam-selection approaches. Based on the obtained results, beam-selection at the receiver can have a significant impact on the DoA and ToA estimation performance as well as on the subsequent positioning accuracy. Finally, we demonstrate the highly accurate performance of the methods when extended to joint multi-receiver-based device positioning and clock synchronization.
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