Characterization of laboratory and real driving emissions of individual Euro 6 light-duty vehicles – Fresh particles and secondary aerosol formation

Pauli Simonen, Joni Kalliokoski, Panu Karjalainen, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Sanna Saarikoski, Minna Aurela, Matthew Bloss, Georgios Triantafyllopoulos, Anastasios Kontses, Stavros Amanatidis, Athanasios Dimaratos, Zissis Samaras, Jorma Keskinen, Miikka Dal Maso, Leonidas Ntziachristos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)
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Emissions from passenger cars are one of major sources that deteriorate urban air quality. This study presents characterization of real-drive emissions from three Euro 6 emission level passenger cars (two gasoline and one diesel) in terms of fresh particles and secondary aerosol formation. The gasoline vehicles were also characterized by chassis dynamometer studies. In the real-drive study, the particle number emissions during regular driving were 1.1–12.7 times greater than observed in the laboratory tests (4.8 times greater on average), which may be caused by more effective nucleation process when diluted by real polluted and humid ambient air. However, the emission factors measured in laboratory were still much higher than the regulatory value of 6 × 1011 particles km−1. The higher emission factors measured here result probably from the fact that the regulatory limit considers only non-volatile particles larger than 23 nm, whereas here, all particles (also volatile) larger than 3 nm were measured. Secondary aerosol formation potential was the highest after a vehicle cold start when most of the secondary mass was organics. After the cold start, the relative contributions of ammonium, sulfate and nitrate increased. Using a novel approach to study secondary aerosol formation under real-drive conditions with the chase method resulted mostly in emission factors below detection limit, which was not in disagreement with the laboratory findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113175
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Particle number
  • PM
  • RDE
  • Secondary organic aerosol
  • SOA

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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