Characterization of signal kinetics in real time surgical tissue classification system

Markus Karjalainen, Anton Kontunen, Anna Anttalainen, Meri Mäkelä, Soma Varga, Maiju Lepomäki, Osmo Anttalainen, Pekka Kumpulainen, Niku Oksala, Antti Roine, Antti Vehkaoja

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Effective surgical margin assessment is paramount for good oncological outcomes and new methods are in active development. One emerging approach is the analysis of the chemical composition of surgical smoke from tissues. Surgical smoke is typically removed with a smoke evacuator to protect the operating room staff from its harmful effects to the respiratory system. Thus, analysis of the evacuated smoke without disturbing the operation is a feasible approach. Smoke transportation is subject to lags that affect system usability. We analyzed the smoke transportation delay and evaluated its effects to tissue classification with differential mobility spectrometry in a simulated setting using porcine tissues. With a typical smoke evacuator setting, the front of the surgical plume reaches the analysis system in 380 ms and the sensor within one second. For a typical surgical incision (duration 1.5 s), the measured signal reaches its maximum in 2.3 s and declines to under 10% of the maximum in 8.6 s from the start of the incision. Two-class tissue classification was tested with 2, 3, 5, and 11 s repetition rates resulting in no significant differences in classification accuracy, implicating that signal retention from previous samples is mitigated by the classification algorithm.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131902
Number of pages8
JournalSensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Differential ion mobility spectrometry
  • Signal carry-over
  • Surgical margin analysis
  • Tissue classification

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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