Childhood and long-term dietary calcium intake and adult cardiovascular risk in a population with high calcium intake

Feitong Wu, Katja Pahkala, Markus Juonala, Suvi P. Rovio, Matthew A. Sabin, Tapani Rönnemaa, Kylie J. Smith, Antti Jula, Terho Lehtimäki, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Mika Kähönen, Tomi Laitinen, Jorma S.A. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari, Costan G. Magnussen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Background & aims: The influence of dietary calcium intake in childhood on adult cardiovascular health is unknown, particularly in those with long-term high intake. To examine both linear and non-linear associations of childhood and long-term (between childhood and adulthood) dietary calcium intake with adult cardiovascular risk outcomes. Methods: A population-based prospective cohort study in Finland (n = 1029, aged 3–18 years at baseline). Dietary calcium intake was assessed in childhood (1980, baseline) and adulthood (mean of available data from 2001, 2007 and 2011). Long-term dietary calcium intake was calculated as the mean between childhood and adulthood. Outcomes were measured in 2001, 2007, and/or 2011, and the latest available data were used for analyses, including high carotid intima-media thickness, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid artery compliance (CAC), Young's elastic modulus (YEM), and stiffness index (SI). Results: There were no significant non-linear or linear associations between childhood or long-term dietary calcium intake with any adult cardiovascular outcomes, after adjustment for age, sex, and childhood and adulthood confounders (e.g., body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption). Conclusions: Childhood or long-term dietary calcium intake that is higher than the recommended level is not associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adulthood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1926-1931
Issue number4
Early online date18 Sep 2020
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Cohort
  • Dietary calcium intake
  • Paediatric

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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