Coexisting Type 1 Diabetes, Persistent Symptoms, and Financial Issues Associate With Poorer Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease After Transition From Pediatrics to Adult Care

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Abstract

Purpose: We evaluated adherence to a gluten-free diet and associated factors in adult celiac disease patients diagnosed in childhood. Methods: Comprehensive medical data on 955 pediatric celiac disease patients was collected and study questionnaires sent to 559 who were now adults. All variables were compared between strictly adherent and non-adherent patients. Results: Altogether 237 adults (median age 27 years, 69% women) responded to the questionnaires a median of 18 (range 3–51) years after the childhood diagnosis. Altogether 78% were reportedly adherent and 22% non-adherent. The non-adherent patients had more concomitant type 1 diabetes (18% vs. 4%, p = 0.003), whereas the groups did not differ in demographic data or clinical and histological features at diagnosis, or in short-term dietary adherence. In adulthood, non-adherent patients found gluten-free diet more challenging (39% vs. 17%, p < 0.001) and had higher prevalence (39% vs. 19%, p = 0.004) and severity of symptoms. The main motivation factors for dietary adherence were attempts to avoid symptoms and complications, but these were considered less important and price of gluten-free products more important among non-adherent patients. Adherent and non-adherent patients did not differ in socioeconomic or lifestyle factors, comorbidities other than type 1 diabetes, self-reported general health, health concerns, follow-up, or in quality of life. Conclusion: Most originally pediatric celiac disease patients reported strict dietary adherence in adulthood. However, particularly those with concomitant type 1 diabetes, persistent symptoms or financial issues may require attention during the transition from pediatric to adult care.

Original languageEnglish
Article number883220
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 May 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • celiac disease
  • comorbidity
  • follow-up
  • gluten-free diet
  • transition of care
  • type 1 diabetes

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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