Demand Response with Electrical Heating in Detached Houses in Finland and Comparison with BESS for Increasing PV Self-Consumption

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Distributed electric power production by small-scale customers is increasing continuously. Photovoltaic production is a popular method of producing self-energy for customers. Additionally, power systems require more flexibility when weather-dependent renewable energy production increases. Small-scale customers can increase the self-consumption of self-produced energy by using batteries or a demand response operation. However, batteries require high investment, and demand response operations induce a loss of comfort. Customers who heat their buildings using electric heaters are a good target for demand response operations because their heating can be controlled with limited changes in the indoor temperature. The demand response potential of a building can be defined by simply using customer load profiles and knowledge of the outdoor temperature. Any other information is not required in the proposed novel method. A tolerable variation in indoor temperature corresponds to considerably smaller battery capacity, though it is still a significant amount. With an optimally sized photovoltaic system, it is possible to use both methods simultaneously to increase self-consumption. Maximal benefits can be attained from both methods if the battery system is used as a primary control and the demand response is used as a secondary control. The defined novel method for determining the demand response potential of small-scale customers can also be used when estimating the flexibility of a large customer group. Small-scale customers together can provide significant flexible capacity when their electrical heating is centrally controlled.

Original languageEnglish
Article number497
Number of pages25
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • battery
  • buildings
  • demand response
  • photovoltaic

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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