To identify biomarkers of disease activity and progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), we analyzed the serum profiles of cytokines, chemokines and apoptotic molecules in different subtypes of MS including clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and correlated their levels with clinical and volumetric MRI findings obtained over a one-year follow up. Upregulated levels of apoptotic sFas molecule were found in MS patients with a worsening EDSS score and an accumulation of hypointense lesions in MRI. In such patients, the levels of MIF appeared to be higher than in non-progressing patients. In addition, increased levels of serum TNF-α and CCL2 were found especially in primary progressive MS (PPMS). These observations suggest that serum Fas and MIF are candidate biomarkers of neurological worsening related to progressive neurodegeneration, while serum TNF-α and CCL2 reflect the presence of inflammatory responses in PPMS.
- Expanded disability status scale
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Multiple sclerosis
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