Effect of water quality on the filtration of dispersive base soils

Amir Hossein Vakili, Mohamad Razip bin Selamat, Mahdi Salimi, Mohammad Sadegh Farhadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


A filter is designed to protect the core of an earth dam from erosion. Almost all traditional filter design criteria and the state-of-the-art filter design criteria have been made available without considering the effects of water quality; therefore, this study highlights the effects of eroding water quality on the performance of core–filter arrangements and curing fluids on the behaviour of dispersive cores. Specifically, the tendency of the colloidal particles of a dispersive core soil to flocculate or otherwise has been measured involving two different waters—the Malaysian river water and distilled water. To this end, 30 clayey soil specimens with various percent dispersions were prepared for the study. Then, each clayey soil specimen was tested against various trial sandy filters in order to measure the no-erosion filter (NEF) boundary for that core material using each type of waters separately. When dispersive core soils were subjected to Malaysian river water, the NEF boundaries were measured coarser by up to 1.75 times than when the same core soils were subjected to distilled water. Based on the scanning electron microscope images, flocculated structures were formed when a dispersive core soil was cured with the Malaysian river water, more so than when the same core soil was cured with distilled water. Based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF) test results, the 1.27% sodium content of a core soil sample cured with the Malaysian river water was significantly less than the 4.84% sodium content of the similar core soil but cured with distilled water; thus, the latter was more dispersive relatively. Finally, the experimental results were compared with the state-of-the-art filter design criterion of Dc35/d*85 ≤ 1. The findings could affect the design and analysis of core–filter arrangements for dams.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1379
JournalArabian Journal of Geosciences
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Dispersive core soil
  • Earth dams
  • Filter design criteria
  • No erosion filter boundary
  • Water quality

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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