Effective material model for cold-formed rectangular hollow sections in beam element-based advanced analysis

Lauri Jaamala, Kristo Mela, Juha Tulonen, Anssi Hyvärinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
24 Downloads (Pure)


This study develops and validates an effective material model for cold-formed rectangular hollow sections. Advanced design methods utilize non-linear finite element analysis in design. An accurate calculation model, which is usually beam element-based, is crucial such that the design outcome is safe but economical. Unfortunately, cold-formed sections have non-linear residual stress distribution over the material thickness, that cannot be explicitly modelled in general-purpose beam elements. Additionally, corner regions of cold-formed sections have higher material strength compared to flat regions. This beneficial feature is usually disregarded by assuming the flat region properties for the entire cross-section. This study develops an effective material model that replicates a stress-strain curve that would be obtained if the tensile test was made for the entire cross-section instead of a separate tensile coupon. Consequently, the effects of residual stresses and corner strength enhancements are included in the effective material model such that their consideration in beam element-based advanced design method is effortless. The effective material model is validated for the steel grade S700 against numerical shell element buckling tests and excellent modelling accuracy is achieved.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107569
JournalJournal of Constructional Steel Research
Early online date26 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Advanced design method
  • Buckling
  • Cold-formed
  • High-strength steel
  • Residual stress, corner strength enhancement

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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