Effects of Biomass Type, Carbonization Process, and Activation Method on the Properties of Bio-Based Activated Carbons

Virpi Siipola, Tarja Tamminen, Anssi Kalli, Riikka Lahti, Henrik Romar, Kimmo Rasa, Riikka Keskinen, Jari Hyvaluoma, Markus Hannula, Hanne Wikberg

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Activated carbons (AC) serve as adsorbents in various applications requiring specific functionalities. In this study, the effects of biomass type, pre-carbonization process, and activation method on the properties of ACs were investigated. Chemical (KOH and H3PO4) and physical (CO2) activations were performed on slow pyrolyzed and hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biochars produced from two feedstocks, willow and Scots pine bark (SPB). In addition, the adsorption capacities of the ACs were tested with two dyes and zinc metal. Distinct differences were found between the biochars and ACs regarding pore size distributions, surface area (238 - 3505 m(2) g(-1)), and surface chemistry. KOH activation produced highly microporous ACs from all biochars, whereas with H3PO4 and CO2 there was also increase in the meso- and macroporosity with the HTC biochars. Adsorption capacity for dyes was dependent on the surface area, while for zinc it depended on AC's pH. The results provide interesting insights into tailoring ACs for specific applications.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)5976-6002
    Number of pages27
    JournalBioResources
    Volume13
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2018
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Keywords

    • Biochar
    • Activated carbon
    • Bio-based activated carbon
    • Willow
    • Pine bark
    • X-ray tomography
    • PHOSPHORIC-ACID ACTIVATION
    • HYDROTHERMAL CARBONIZATION
    • CHEMICAL ACTIVATION
    • AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES
    • POROSITY DEVELOPMENT
    • H3PO4 ACTIVATION
    • POROUS CARBONS
    • FUEL-CELL
    • ADSORPTION
    • WASTE

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    • Publication forum level 1

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