The sub-aggregation of electric vehicles provides significant potential to power systems in the form of ancillary services. This means with smart charging it is possible to shift loads from peak to off-peak hours. For the flexibility from privately owned electric vehicles to be offered to the electricity market, customer participation is crucial; however, the impacts of sub-aggregation on customers have not been studied thoroughly. In this paper, charging data covering over 80,000 real-world charging sessions from various commercial charging sites are introduced and the charging characteristics are analyzed. Importantly, a method for finding an optimal pattern for load reduction with the least impact on customers is presented. We suggest an optimal schedule for load reduction from the customer viewpoint at different types of charging sites, including public car parks, offices, residential sites, and shopping centers. The findings indicate that residential and office charging sites offer the greatest potential for load reduction with the least impact on customers. The most flexibility is available during peak charging hours, which on average are at 08:00 at car parks, 07:30 at office sites, 19:00 at residential sites, and 10:00 at shopping centers.
|Publication status||Published - 24 Jun 2021|
|Publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
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