Exhaust particle and NOx emission performance of an SCR heavy duty truck operating in real-world conditions

Sampo Saari, Panu Karjalainen, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Liisa Pirjola, Pekka Matilainen, Jorma Keskinen, Topi Rönkkö

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    28 Citations (Scopus)


    Particle and NOx emissions of an SCR equipped HDD truck were studied in real-world driving conditions using the "Sniffer" mobile laboratory. Real-time CO2 measurement enables emission factor calculation for NOx and particles. In this study, we compared three different emission factor calculation methods and characterised their suitability for real-world chasing experiments. The particle number emission was bimodal and dominated by the nucleation mode particles (diameter below 23 nm) having emission factor up to 1 × 1015 #/kgfuel whereas emission factor for soot (diameter above 23 nm that is consistent with the PMP standard) was typically 1 × 1014 #/kgfuel. The effect of thermodenuder on the exhaust particles indicated that the nucleation particles consisted mainly of volatile compounds, but sometimes there also existed a non-volatile core. The nucleation mode particles are not controlled by current regulations in Europe. However, these particles consistently form under atmospheric dilution in the plume of the truck and constitute a health risk for the human population that is exposed to those. Average NOx emission was 3.55 g/kWh during the test, whereas the Euro IV emission limit over transient testing is 3.5 g NOx/kWh. The on-road emission performance of the vehicle was very close to the expected levels, confirming the successful operation of the SCR system of the tested vehicle. Heavy driving conditions such as uphill driving increased both the NOx and particle number emission factors whereas the emission factor for soot particle number remains rather constant.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)136-144
    JournalAtmospheric Environment
    Early online date2 Dec 2015
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Emission factor
    • Nucleation mode
    • Particle number
    • Selective catalytic reduction
    • Volatile compound

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 1

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Atmospheric Science
    • General Environmental Science


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