Experimental investigation on the tensile behaviour of welded RHS high strength steel X-joints

Rui Yan, Kristo Mela, Hagar El Bamby, Milan Veljkovic

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The newest version of prEN 1993-1-8 (2022) prescribes a material factor (Cf) to reduce the design resistance of welded joints made of high strength steel (HSS) mostly due to the lack of available experiments, given the less ductility of HSS compared to mild steel. Additionally, it is stated that the material design yield strength should not exceed 0.8 times the ultimate strength (fu) for the chord punching shear failure and the tensile brace failure. The mechanical background behind Cf and the 0.8fu restriction for different types of joints and loading conditions is vague. In this paper, the validity of Cf and the 0.8fu restriction is investigated experimentally by considering 18 welded rectangular hollow section X-joints tested in tension. A bi-linear model, which is suitable for an elasto-plastic global analysis considering the post-yielding stiffness, is proposed to characterize the nonlinear behaviour of the joint. The predicted resistance and failure mode, with and without considering the Cf and/or the 0.8fu restriction, are compared to the experimental results. In addition, the predicted resistance corresponding to the experimental failure mode is investigated. It is concluded, based on the tested joints in this paper and literature, that Cf and the 0.8fu restriction are not necessary for the design according to prEN1993-1-8. However, the predicted brace failure resistance is unconservative for tested joints that failed by brace failure if Cf for S700 or the 0.8fu restriction for all steel grades is not considered.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115357
JournalEngineering Structures
Early online dateDec 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cold-formed rectangular hollow section
  • High strength steel
  • Welded tubular joints
  • X-joint

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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