Experimental study on axially loaded square hollow section T-joints under fire conditions

Jolanta Bączkiewicz, Mikko Malaska, Sami Pajunen, Mika Alanen, Markku Heinisuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper considers the fire resistance and failure modes of square hollow section (SHS) T-joints under axial compression at the brace end at elevated temperatures. Experimental tests on five full-scale joints with various geometries were performed. The specimens were first loaded with a constant load, resulting in a compressive reaction at the brace, then subjected to a heating process. The furnace heating followed a standard ISO 834 fire temperature curve. The specimens' temperature and deformations were measured until the specimens' failure. The results indicate that the final failure appears suddenly when the joint's temperature exceeds a critical value that is characteristic for each joint configuration. Three failure modes were observed, and the test results indicate that joint geometry affects the failure mode. A numerical study followed the experimental tests. A finite element model was created to simulate the behaviour of SHS T-joints under a brace's compression load. The model was validated and verified to obtain best representation of the joints' experimental behaviour.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102993
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Axial load
  • Failure mode
  • Fire test
  • Hollow section
  • Joint design
  • Steel joint

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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