Experimental study on the behavior of wear resistant steels under high velocity single particle impacts

Matti Lindroos, Marian Apostol, Veli Tapani Kuokkala, Anssi Laukkanen, Kati Valtonen, Kenneth Holmberg, Olli Oja

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    29 Citations (Scopus)
    112 Downloads (Pure)


    High velocity solid particle erosion may cause severe damage and high wear rates in materials used for wear protection. An experimental work on the behavior of wear resistant steels, including three high-strength martensitic alloys and a carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite, was performed in high rate single impact conditions. Characterization of the mechanical behavior of the materials at high strain rates was conducted using the Hopkinson Split Bar technique to identify the effects of strain rate on strain hardening and the prevailing failure mechanisms. The high velocity impact experiments using spherical projectiles were carried out at various impact angles and projectile velocities. The effects of impact energy and impact angle were studied and discussed.Wear was analyzed as volume loss from the surface, but it was also presented in a more precise way by taking into account the actual energy spent on the plastic deformation and wear. In-situ high speed photography and post impact characterization of the impact craters were used to reveal the prevailing failure and wear mechanisms. Depending on the impact angle and impact energy, different wear mechanisms of plastic deformation, cutting, shear banding and fracture were identified. The martensitic steels exhibited adiabatic shear banding in the microstructure at high strain rates and impact velocities, which may accelerate the wear. The carbide reinforced steel was found susceptible to catastrophic fracturing especially at high impact angles.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)114-127
    Number of pages14
    JournalInternational Journal of Impact Engineering
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Adiabatic shear band
    • High strain rate
    • High strength steel
    • Impact wear

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 1

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Mechanical Engineering
    • Mechanics of Materials
    • Civil and Structural Engineering
    • Aerospace Engineering
    • Automotive Engineering
    • Ocean Engineering
    • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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