Flexible organic photovoltaics with star‐shaped non‐fullerene acceptors end‐capped with indene malononitrile and barbiturate derivatives

B Al-Anesi, S Revoju, A Hiltunen, Riikka Suhonen, TM Kraft, MN Liu, HC Zhang, ZF Deng, C Fedele, A Berdin, N Lamminen, GK Grandhi, M Ylikunnari, P Vivo

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Abstract

We report the design and synthesis of three star-shaped non-fullerene (NFA) acceptors, TPA-2T-INCN, TPA-2T-BAB, and TPA-T-INCN, based on triphenylamine (TPA) core and linked through π-conjugated thiophene (T) spacers to different terminal units (3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene) malononitrile, INCN, and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid, BAB). These materials were blended with the widely used poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) donor polymer and tested in flexible organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The NFAs capped with the strong electron withdrawing INCN unit performed best in OPVs. Both P3HT:TPA-T-INCN, and P3HT:TPA-2T-INCN blends also showed the highest photoluminescence quenching efficiency (95.8% and 92.6%, respectively). Surprisingly, when reducing the number of T spacers from 2 to 1, the solubility of the NFAs in o-dichlorobenzene increased, leading to easier processing during the OPV fabrication and better surface morphology. This explains the best performance of TPA-T-INCN-based blends in OPVs, with a champion power conversion efficiency of 1.13%.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2200264
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Technology
Volume10
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • non-fullerene acceptor
  • star-shaped
  • indene malononitrile
  • barbiturate
  • organic photovoltaics
  • flexible

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

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