Freeze-thaw Damage Dependence on Wind-driven Rain of Outdoor Exposed Concrete – A Case Study

Toni Pakkala, Jukka Lahdensivu, Petteri Huuhka, Henna Kivioja, Antti-Matti Lemberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


It has been shown in previous studies that the existing precast concrete element building stock in Finland has quality issues, especially with freeze-thaw durability and reinforcement corrosion. In addition, it has been presented that deterioration rate is the fastest in coastal area and decreases towards north which has been supposed to be a reason of lower amount of wind-driven rain
(WDR). The aim of this study was to examine the connection between the amount of WDR on structures and the freeze-thaw damage more comprehensively. Condition investigation reports of 472 precast concrete element buildings were reanalysed to study the relation and the results were compared to climate data of the same time period to study the correlation between condition investigation observations and the amount of WDR. In addition, the observations made in a
condition investigations and their relation to climate load at the same building were studied as a case study. The results show that there is a significant connection between the WDR related climate load and the freeze-thaw damage occurrence. The results can be used to plan protective methods and be a base for service life estimations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6
Pages (from-to)91-106
Number of pages16
JournalNordic Concrete Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Concrete
  • Climatic stress
  • Durability properties
  • Freeze-thaw attack
  • Service life

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1


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