Halide Perovskites for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting and CO2 Reduction: Challenges and Opportunities

Krzysztof Bienkowski, Renata Solarska, Linh Trinh, Justyna Widera-Kalinowska, Basheer Al-Anesi, Maning Liu, G. Krishnamurthy Grandhi, Paola Vivo, Burcu Oral, Beyza Yılmaz, Ramazan Yıldırım

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review


Photoelectrochemical water splitting and CO2 reduction provide an attractive route to produce solar fuels while reducing the level of CO2 emissions. Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have been extensively studied for this purpose in recent years due to their suitable optoelectronic properties. In this review, we survey the recent achievements in the field. After a brief introduction to photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes, we discussed the properties, synthesis, and application of MHPs in this context. We also survey the state-of-the-art findings regarding significant achievements in performance, and developments in addressing the major challenges of toxicity and instability toward water. Efforts have been made to replace the toxic Pb with less toxic materials like Sn, Ge, Sb, and Bi. The stability toward water has been also improved by using various methods such as compositional engineering, 2D/3D perovskite structures, surface passivation, the use of protective layers, and encapsulation. In the last part, considering the experience gained in photovoltaic applications, we provided our perspective for the future challenges and opportunities. We place special emphasis on the improvement of stability as the major challenge and the potential contribution of machine learning to identify the most suitable formulation for halide perovskites with desired properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6603-6622
Number of pages20
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2024
Publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • CO reduction
  • machine learning
  • photoelectrochemistry, halide perovskites
  • solar energy conversion

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry


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