Health Promotion Actions and School Violence—A Cluster Analysis from Finnish Comprehensive Schools

Noora Ellonen, Miko Pasanen, Kirsi Wiss, Laura Mielityinen, Elina Lähteenmäki, Katja Joronen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Downloads (Pure)


(1) Schools have a significant role in violence prevention activities. This study aimed to first identify profiles of Finnish comprehensive schools based on school violence. The second aim was to examine the associations between profiles concerning health promotion actions, reactive or punitive actions, and school characteristics. (2) The study used the large-scale, nationally representative Benchmarking System of Health Promotion Capacity-Building (BSHPCB) data (n = 2057 schools) completed by the school’s principal together with a student welfare team. The data was analyzed by cluster analysis and Chi-squared and Kruskal–Wallis tests. For post hoc testing, Fisher’s exact test with odds ratios and Mann–Whitney U-test were used. (3) The cluster analysis yielded five profiles of school violence: “No violence”, “Adolescent violence” (violence both among pupils and from pupils towards staff, but not inappropriate behavior from school staff towards pupils), “Not known” (principals either did not respond to these questions or they did not know whether there had been any school violence incidents), “Peer violence” (school violence occurred among pupils but not from pupils towards staff, nor inappropriate behavior from school staff towards pupils), and “All violence” (all types of school violence and inappropriate behavior from school staff towards pupils). These clusters differed according to type of school and municipality. Additionally, both management and monitoring as health promotion actions were related to higher incidence of school violence whereas other actions, such as commitment, resources, common practices, and participation were not related to school violence. (4) The findings of this study indicate that schools have different profiles in terms of school violence and providing evidence and guidance for school violence prevention work.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12698
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cluster analysis
  • health promotion
  • school characteristics
  • school violence

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'Health Promotion Actions and School Violence—A Cluster Analysis from Finnish Comprehensive Schools'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this