High-risk ECG patterns in ST elevation myocardial infarction for mortality prediction

Roope Lahti, Jani Rankinen, Leo Pekka Lyytikäinen, Markku Eskola, Kjell Nikus, Jussi Hernesniemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


Aim: We explored the pre-intervention (first medical contact) electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns and their relation to survival among patients with acute myocardial infarction, who presented either with ST elevation (ST elevation myocardial infarction, STEMI) or LBBB, and who underwent emergent coronary angiography in a region with a 24/7/365 STEMI network. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 1363 consecutive patients hospitalized for first STEMI between the years 2014 and 2018. We assessed the prognostic significance of a variety of ECG categories, including location of ST elevation, severity of ischemia, intraventricular and atrioventricular conduction disorders, atrial fibrillation or flutter, junctional rhythms, heart rate, left ventricular hypertrophy and Q waves. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality between January 2014 and the end of 2020. Results: The mean age of the patients was 67.9 (SD 12.8) years. The majority were treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (93.8%, n = 1278). Median follow-up time was 3.7 years (IQR 2.5–5.1 years) during which 22.5% (n = 307) of the patients died. According to Cox regression analysis, adjusted for pre-existing conditions and age, the ECG variables with statistically significant association with survival were elevated heart rate (>100 bpm) (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.75–3.12), atrial fibrillation or flutter (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.41–2.67), left bundle branch block (LBBB) (HR 2.62, 95% CI 1.49–4.63) and non-specific intraventricular conduction delay (NIVCD) (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.22–2.89). Conclusion: Higher heart rate, atrial fibrillation or flutter, LBBB and NIVCD are associated with worse outcome in all-comers with STEMI. Ischemia severity was not associated with impaired prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-19
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Electrocardiology
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Bundle branch block
  • Electrocardiogram
  • Non-specific intraventricular conduction delay
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • ST elevation myocardial infarction

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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