HIV program outcomes for Jamaica before and after “Treat All”: A population-based study using the national treatment services database

Anya Cushnie, Ralf Reintjes, Susanna Lehtinen-Jacks, J. Peter Figueroa

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Objective The study aims to assess changes in HIV treatment outcomes for Jamaica after the implementation of the WHO Treat All strategy in January 2017, as well as identify variables associated with clinical stage at diagnosis and viral load status, in order to understand implications for enhancing the HIV clinical cascade and boosting progress towards the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Method This is a population-based study using the National Treatment Service Information System. The sample consists of persons 15 years and older, placed on treatment before and after Treat All was implemented, across all 4 regional health authorities in Jamaica. Patients were assessed for two binary outcomes: 1. stage at HIV diagnosis (early/baseline CD4 cell count ≧350 cells/mm3, or late/ baseline CD4 <350 cells/mm3), 2. viral load status achieved after ART initiation (suppressed/<1000 copies/ml or non-suppressed/ ≥1000 copies/ml). Categorical variables: age/years, gender and health regions, were investigated using multivariable logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results After Treat All, there was an increase in median baseline CD4 results as the proportion of late diagnoses decreased from 60% to 39%. There was a small increase in viral suppression from 76% to 80%, a decrease in baseline viral load testing from 61% to 46% and an increase in the uptake of first viral load testing after starting treatment from 13% to 19%. Males and persons 40+ years had higher odds of late diagnosis before and after Treat All. Conclusion Jamaica’s HIV program outcomes have improved after Treat All was implemented. ART initiation time significantly decreased. Early diagnosis, viral load testing uptake and viral suppression increased. However, there is a need to implement targeted testing for men and persons over 40 years to decrease the frequency of late diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0255781
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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