Hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

M. Kanerva, L. -S. Johansson, J. M. Campbell, H. Revitzer, E. Sarlin, T. Brander, O. Saarela

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    15 Citations (Scopus)


    Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric-nitric-sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten-CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was Delta Gc approximate to 8.4 J/m(2). (C) 2014 Elsevier By. All rights reserved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)418-427
    Number of pages10
    JournalApplied Surface Science
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2015
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • surface treatments
    • XPS
    • Tungsten trioxide
    • Interface
    • Composites

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 1


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