Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-most common cause of male cancer-related death in western industrialized countries, and the emergence of metastases is a key challenge in the treatment of PCa. Accumulating studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of diverse cellular and molecular processes during the development and progression of cancer. Here, we utilized a unique cohort of castration-resistant prostate cancer metastases (mCRPC) and corresponding localized tumors and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). First, we showed that patient-to-patient variability accounted for most of the variance in lncRNA expression between the samples, suggesting that genomic alterations in the samples are the main drivers of lncRNA expression in PCa metastasis. Subsequently, we identified 27 lncRNAs with differential expression (DE-lncRNAs) between metastases and corresponding primary tumors, suggesting that they are mCRPC-specific lncRNAs. Analyses of potential regulation by transcription factors (TFs) revealed that approximately half of the DE-lncRNAs have at least one binding site for the androgen receptor in their regulatory regions. In addition, TF enrichment analysis revealed the enrichment of binding sites for PCa-associated TFs, such as FOXA1 and HOXB13, in the regulatory regions of the DE-lncRNAs. In a cohort of prostatectomy-treated prostate tumors, four of the DE-lncRNAs showed association with progression-free time and two of them (lnc-SCFD2-2 and lnc-R3HCC1L-8) were independent prognostic markers. Our study highlights several mCRPC-specific lncRNAs that might be important in the progression of the disease to the metastatic stage and may also serve as potential biomarkers for aggressive PCa.
- long noncoding RNA
- metastatic prostate cancer
Publication forum classification
- Publication forum level 2
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cancer Research