Identification of microduplications at Xp21.2 and Xq13.1 in neurodevelopmental disorders

Hannaleena Kokkonen, Auli Siren, Tuomo Määttä, Magda Kamila Kadlubowska, Anushree Acharya, Liz M. Nouel-Saied, Suzanne M. Leal, Irma Järvelä, Isabelle Schrauwen

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    Background: Microduplications are a rare cause of disease in X-linked neurodevelopmental disorders but likely have been under reported due challenges in detection and interpretation. Methods: We performed exome sequencing and subsequent microarray analysis in two families with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Results: Here, we report on two families each with unique inherited microduplications at Xp21.2 and Xq13.1, respectively. In the first family, a 562.8-kb duplication at Xq13.1 covering DLG3, TEX11, SLC7A3, GDPD2, and part KIF4A was identified in a boy whose phenotype was characterized by delayed speech development, mild intellectual disability (ID), mild dysmorphic facial features, a heart defect, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. By interrogating all reported Xq13.1 duplications in individuals affected with a neurodevelopmental disorder, we provide evidence that this genomic region and particularly DLG3 might be sensitive to an increased dosage. In the second family with four affected males, we found a noncontinuous 223- and 204-kb duplication at Xp21.2, of which the first duplication covers exon 6 of IL1RAPL1. The phenotype of the male patients was characterized by delayed speech development, mild to moderate ID, strabismus, and neurobehavioral symptoms. The carrier daughter and her mother had learning difficulties. IL1RAPL1 shows nonrecurrent causal structural variation and is located at a common fragile site (FRAXC), prone to re-arrangement. Conclusion: In conclusion, we show that comprehensive clinical and genetic examination of microduplications on the X-chromosome can be helpful in undiagnosed cases of neurodevelopmental disease.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalMolecular Genetics and Genomic Medicine
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 May 2021
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • exome sequencing
    • intellectual disability
    • microduplication
    • neurodevelopmental disorders
    • X-chromosome

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 1

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Molecular Biology
    • Genetics
    • Genetics(clinical)


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