Impact wear and mechanical behavior of steels at subzero temperatures

Kati Valtonen, Vilma Ratia, Karthik Ram Ramakrishnan, Marian Apostol, Juuso Terva, Veli-Tapani Kuokkala

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)
    123 Downloads (Pure)


    In this study, the deformation behavior of three steels was studied at Arctic temperatures by controlled single and multiple oblique angle impacts. The results were compared with the mechanical properties of the steels determined at the corresponding temperatures. At subzero temperatures, the hardness and strength of the studied steels increased and their ability to deform plastically steadily decreased. In the martensitic steels, adiabatic shear bands were observed to form during the impacts at subzero temperatures, indicating that the deformation ability of the steels was critically impaired. At −60 °C, the adiabatic shear bands commonly acted as initiation sites for subsurface cracks. Moreover, the surface characterization of the test samples revealed formation of cracks and wear particles, which was connected to the opening of grain boundaries and martensite laths at low temperatures. Finite Element Modeling was also used to obtain more information about the impact event.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)476-493
    Number of pages18
    JournalTribology International
    Early online date17 Aug 2018
    Publication statusPublished - 2019
    Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Impact
    • Low temperature
    • Steel
    • Wear

    Publication forum classification

    • Publication forum level 2

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Mechanics of Materials
    • Mechanical Engineering
    • Surfaces and Interfaces
    • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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