Individual and community-level predictors of hate-crime victimization among Finnish adolescents

Noora Ellonen, Petri Danielsson, Maiju Tanskanen, Markus Kaakinen, Karoliina Suonpää, Atte Oksanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Previous studies have explained hate-crime victimization using lifestyle-routine activities theory and social disorganization theory. This approach has yielded mixed findings regarding community characteristics due to the limitations of the measures used. Our study examined the effects of multiple individual-level factors and a neighborhood’s economic status, residential instability, and ethnic heterogeneity on hate-crime victimization. We used survey data on Finnish adolescents aged 15–16 and geographically referenced register data on the neighborhoods. Some public lifestyle factors, such as delinquent behavior, were associated with hate-crime victimization. Community-level characteristics did not predict hate crime directly, but individuals with an immigrant background faced a lower risk of hate-crime victimization in more diverse neighborhoods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1251-1272
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Youth Studies
Issue number9
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • ethnic heterogeneity
  • Hate-crime victimization
  • neighborhood economic status
  • residential instability
  • victim-offender overlap

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • General Social Sciences
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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