The aim of this study was to determine the types of heating systems chosen for the Finnish building stock and related changes on the basis of various sources. Actual development in 2000-2012 was reviewed. Future selection trends were investigated to the extent that source data existed. Differences between sources and possible reasons for them were also examined. The focus of the study was the Finnish detached house stock due to the numerous alternative heating systems.
Nearly all large buildings connect to district heating where possible. In small buildings other heating modes are also used independent of their occupancy classification. Thus, choice of heating mode is affected most by the location and size of a building (energy consumption).
The clearest detected trends in selecting forms of heating for Finnish buildings are the rapid decline of oil heating and the strong growth of the popularity of ground heat pumps. It appears that a very small share of Finnish detached houses will be heated by oil at the end of 2028 based on the present rate of abandonment. The popularity of electric heating has also been decreasing in Finnish new detached house construction although it remains the first choice as the main heating system of these houses. The new energy regulations that come into force on 1 July 2012 may reduce essentially the use of electric heating in new construction. In future, electric heating of detached houses will be replaced by different heat pump and hybrid solutions. The share of wood heating has remained much the same for the last decade, and no strong surge in its popularity in the near future is expected.
The materials were also used to sum up the impact of the size of a detached house on the choice of the heating system. The examination confirmed the view that houses heated by wood and electricity are smaller than ones heated by ground-source and district heat.
The main materials used in the study are the building stock and new construction statistics of Statistics Finland and the Energy Statistics Yearbook published by the agency. A new addition to the 2012 energy statistics are data on supplementary heating devices of residential buildings and e.g. the energy consumption of saunas. The building stock and new construction statistics have been divided among urban municipalities and rural municipalities and settlements for the study. The division was made to get a rough view of how community structure, i.e. availability of district heat, affects the heating system distribution of the building stock. The division also makes it easier to assess the development of heating-mode distributions separately in areas where district heat supply is available and where it is not.
Besides the main materials, the study also looked at other surveys considering the forms of heating in Finland. Possible future trends in district heating were examined based on a report titled Future status of district heating in Finland’s energy system (Pöyry 2011). Studies at the University of Eastern Finland have provided additional information on the use of wood in heating buildings. The Asuntokorjaaja (Home Repairer) publication of the Building Information Foundation RTS has shed light on the choices of heating system repairers.
|Translated title of the contribution||Lämmitystapojen kehitys 2000-2012. Aineistoselvitys|
|Place of Publication||Tampere|
|Publisher||Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto. Rakennustekniikan laitos|
|Number of pages||64|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|
|Publication type||D4 Published development or research report or study|
|Name||Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto. Rakennustekniikan laitos. Rakennustuotanto ja -talous. Raportti|
|Publisher||Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto|
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