Levelized cost of driving for medium and heavy-duty battery electric trucks

Mehdi Jahangir Samet, Heikki Liimatainen, Mikko Pihlatie, Oscar Patrick Rene van Vliet

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Abstract

The total cost of ownership (TCO) of trucks is known as one of the main decision-making factors by logistics operators for adopting alternative powertrains such as battery electric trucks (BETs). In this study, we develop a very detailed levelized cost of driving (LCOD) model to analyse the TCO of BETs and conventional trucks (CTs) in medium and heavy-duty truck weight classes. The model has methodological advancements such as developing opportunity costs for charging activities, using a detailed operational time calculation, and analysing the optimum driving ranges or battery sizing. By implementing an extensive sensitivity analysis of LCOD for CTs and BETs over 43 variables, it is revealed that the key parameters such as operational driving range, battery pack price, state of charge of battery, driver cost, “mid-shift” charging power, ambient temperature, opportunity charging, and driving speed have major impacts on the cost competitiveness of BETs vs. CTs. In addition, the impact of battery and charging technology improvements as well as designing optimum driving ranges are examined in three different operational trip profiles (urban, short-haul or regional, long-haul). The result shows that: 1) BETs in urban trip profiles with the current and/or short-term battery technology might be economically viable alternatives for CTs without the help of the policy measures, 2) BETs with below 40 t gross vehicle weight and the long-term improvements in battery technology in all the operational trip profiles might be economically viable alternatives for CTs without the help of the policy measures, and 3) the implementation of policy measures affecting the relative costs of CTs and BETs and development of fast-charging facilities would be needed to support the above 40 t BETs in short-haul and long-haul trips for the current and/or short-term as well as mid-term battery technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number122976
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Energy
Volume361
Early online date10 Mar 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2024
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Total cost of ownership (TCO)
  • Battery electric trucks (BETs)
  • Levelized cost of driving (LCOD)
  • Operational driving range
  • Battery technology
  • Charging technology

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3

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