Lung cancer risk in relation to jobs held in a nationwide case-control study in Iran

Bayan Hosseini, Ann Olsson, Liacine Bouaoun, Amy Hall, Maryam Hadji, Hamideh Rashidian, Ahmad Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Maryam Marzban, Farid Najafi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Paolo Boffetta, Farin Kamangar, Eero Pukkala, Arash Etemadi, Elisabete Weiderpass, Joachim Schüz, Kazem Zendehdel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Background: Globally, lung cancer is the most frequent occupational cancer, but the risk associated with the occupations or occupational environment in Iran is not clear. We aimed to assess occupations with the risk of lung cancer. Methods: We used the IROPICAN nationwide case-control study data including 658 incident lung cancer cases and 3477 controls. We assessed the risk of lung cancer in relation to ever working in major groups of International Standard Classification of Occupations, high-risk occupations for lung cancer and duration of employment and lung cancer subtype among construction workers and farmers while controlling for cigarette smoking and opium consumption. We used unconditional regression logistic models to estimate ORs for the association between increased lung cancer risk and occupations. Results: We observed elevated ORs for lung cancer in male construction workers (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.8), petroleum industry workers (OR=3.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 9.8), female farmers (OR=2.6; 95% CI: 1.3 to 5.3) and female bakers (OR=5.5; 95% CI: 1.0 to 29.8). A positive trend by the duration of employment was observed for male construction workers (p< 0.001). Increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma was observed in male construction workers (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.0) and female farmers (OR=4.3; 95% CI: 1.1 to 17.2), who also experienced an increased risk of adenocarcinoma (OR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.4 to 9.9). Discussion: Although we observed associations between some occupations and lung cancer consistent with the literature, further studies with larger samples focusing on exposures are needed to better understand the occupational lung cancer burden in Iran.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)831-838
JournalOccupational and environmental medicine
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cancer
  • epidemiology
  • lung diseases, interstitial
  • materials, exposures or occupational groups

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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