Millimeter-wave Mobile Sensing and Environment Mapping: Models, Algorithms and Validation

Carlos Baquero Barneto, Elizaveta Rastorgueva-Foi, Furkan Keskin, Taneli Riihonen, Matias Turunen, Jukka Talvitie, Henk Wymeersch, Mikko Valkama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)


Integrating efficient connectivity, positioning and sensing functionalities into 5G New Radio (NR) and beyond mobile cellular systems is one timely research paradigm, especially at mm-wave and sub-THz bands. In this article, we address the radio-based sensing and environment mapping prospect with specific emphasis on the user equipment (UE) side. We first describe an efficient ℓ1 -regularized least-squares (LS) approach to obtain sparse range--angle charts at individual measurement or sensing locations. For the subsequent environment mapping, we then introduce a novel state model for mapping diffuse and specular scattering, which allows efficient tracking of individual scatterers over time using interacting multiple model (IMM) extended Kalman filter and smoother. Also the related measurement selection and data association problems are addressed. We provide extensive numerical indoor mapping results at the 28~GHz band deploying OFDM-based 5G NR uplink waveform with 400~MHz channel bandwidth, covering both accurate ray-tracing based as well as actual RF measurement results. The results illustrate the superiority of the dynamic tracking-based solutions, compared to static reference methods, while overall demonstrate the excellent prospects of radio-based mobile environment sensing and mapping in future mm-wave networks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3900-3916
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 5G New Radio (NR)
  • 6G
  • Antenna arrays
  • Antenna measurements
  • indoor mapping
  • joint communications and sensing
  • mm-waves
  • mobile radar
  • OFDM
  • OFDM radar
  • Radar tracking
  • Radio frequency
  • RF convergence
  • Sensors
  • Simultaneous localization and mapping
  • sub-THz

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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