Modeling and optimization of height-related geometrical parameters for thin wall structures manufactured by metal additive manufacturing

M. Rahmani Dehaghani, Yifan Tang, Suraj Panicker, Di Wu, Eric Coatanea, G. Gary Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Cold metal transfer wire arc additive manufacturing (CMT-WAAM) has attracted attention in recent years due to its ability to print walls with higher dimensional accuracy than regular WAAM. To print near-net shape parts by CMT-WAAM, there is a need to define a set of height-related geometrical parameters (HGPs) that can capture, quantify, and compare the quality of the height of the produced parts. In the presenting study, a set of HGPs, namely, the average height error, maximum height variation, and average absolute slope are defined and assessed. Fifteen single-track multi-layer walls are printed to check the effect of process parameters on the defined HGPs. It is found that the stability and quality of the print cannot be guaranteed by checking the visual appearance of the single beads and at least five-to-ten-layer walls should be printed. It is also found that the travel speed and the wire feed speed have positive monotonic relationships with average absolute slope and maximum height variation, respectively. Correlations between process parameters and HGPs are modeled and optimized using multi-objective optimization, and a validation test is performed to check the validity of the developed models. Moreover, HGPs of walls printed using unidirectional and bidirectional path strategies are calculated and compared. Defined HGPs are able to quantify, capture, and compare the quality of height of a wall with only three parameters. The HGPs can be used in further studies to report and compare the quality of height of thin wall structures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4663–4675
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2023
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cold metal transfer
  • Geometrical deviation
  • Multi-objective optimization
  • Wire arc additive manufacturing

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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