Modeling students' flow experience through data logs in gamified educational systems

Wilk Oliveira, Seiji Isotani, Olena Pastushenko, Tomas Hruska, Juho Hamari

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


User modeling in gamified educational systems is a contemporary challenge. In particular, modeling the students' flow experience (i.e., challenge-skill balance, action-awareness merging, clear goals, unambiguous feedback, total concentration on the task at hand, sense of control, loss of self-consciousness, transformation of time, and autotelic experience) during a gamified system usage is highly challenging. It is because measurement' instruments usually are invasive, removing the users from the flow experience and/or cannot be applied massively (e.g., participant observation, questionnaires or electroencephalogram). We faced this challenge by conducting a data-driven study (N = 23), where we used a robust statistical method (i.e., partial least squares path modeling) to model the students' flow experience, based on their interaction data (e.g., number of mouse clicks) in a gamified educational system. The main results indicate a relationship between the interaction logs and four flow experience dimensions. Our finds contribute to the area of gamified educational systems, through the students' flow experience modeling. Finally, based on our results, we also provided a series of recommendations for future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - IEEE 21st International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2021
EditorsMaiga Chang, Nian-Shing Chen, Demetrios G Sampson, Ahmed Tlili
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781665441063
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Publication typeA4 Article in conference proceedings
EventIEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies - , Malaysia
Duration: 12 Jul 202115 Jul 2021

Publication series

NameIEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies
ISSN (Electronic)2161-377X


ConferenceIEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies


  • Flow experience
  • Flow Theory
  • Gamified educational systems
  • Students'experience
  • User modeling

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Software
  • Education


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