Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Hybrid VLC-RF Networks with Imperfect Channel State Information

Ahmed Al Hammadi, Paschalis Sofotasios, Sami Muhaidat, Mahmoud Al-Qutayri, Hany Elgala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


This paper proposes a general framework for the energy efficiency analysis of a hybrid visible light communication (VLC) and Radio Frequency (RF) wireless system, in which both VLC and RF subsystems utilize non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technology. The proposed framework is based on realistic communication scenarios as it takes into account the mobility of users and assumes imperfect channel-state information (CSI). In this context, tractable closed-form expressions are derived for the corresponding average sum-rate of NOMA-VLC and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)- VLC. It is shown extensively that incurred CSI errors have a considerable impact on the average energy efficiency of both NOMA-VLC and OFDMA-VLC systems. Hence, they should be taken into detailed account in the design of practical systems. We further demonstrate that the average energy efficiency of the hybrid NOMA-VLC-RF system outperforms the NOMA-VLC system under imperfect CSI. Respective computer simulations corroborate the derived analytic results, and interesting theoret- ical and practical insights are provided, which will be useful in the effective design and deployment of conventional VLC and hybrid VLC-RF systems
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)398-411
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number1
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Radio frequency
  • NOMA
  • Visible light communication
  • Hybrid power systems
  • Resource management
  • Power demand
  • Electrical engineering
  • Visible light communications
  • multiple access
  • imperfect CSI
  • sum-rate
  • hybrid wireless technologies

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 3


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