One-year healthcare costs of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage treated in the intensive care unit

Marika Smeds, Markus B. Skrifvars, Matti Reinikainen, Stepani Bendel, Sanna Hoppu, Ruut Laitio, Tero Ala-Kokko, Sami Curtze, Gerli Sibolt, Nicolas Martinez-Majander, Rahul Raj

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Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) entails significant mortality and morbidity. Severely ill ICH patients are treated in intensive care units (ICUs), but data on 1-year healthcare costs and patient care cost-effectiveness are lacking. Methods: Retrospective multi-center study of 959 adult patients treated for spontaneous ICH from 2003 to 2013. The primary outcomes were 12-month mortality or permanent disability, defined as being granted a permanent disability allowance or pension by the Social Insurance Institution by 2016. Total healthcare costs were hospital, rehabilitation, and social security costs within 12 months. A multivariable linear regression of log transformed cost data, adjusting for case mix, was used to assess independent factors associated with costs. Results: Twelve-month mortality was 45% and 51% of the survivors were disabled at the end of follow-up. The mean 12-month total cost was €49,754, of which rehabilitation, tertiary hospital and social security costs accounted for 45%, 39%, and 16%, respectively. The highest effective cost per independent survivor (ECPIS) was noted among patients aged >70 years with brainstem ICHs, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, larger hematoma volumes, intraventricular hemorrhages, and ICH scores of 3. In multivariable analysis, age, GCS score, and severity of illness were associated independently with 1-year healthcare costs. Conclusions: Costs associated with ICHs vary between patient groups, and the ECPIS appears highest among patients older than 70 years and those with brainstem ICHs and higher ICH scores. One-third of financial resources were used for patients with favorable outcomes. Further detailed cost-analysis studies for patients with an ICH are required.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Stroke Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cerebral hemorrhage
  • cost of illness
  • critical care
  • health care costs
  • Stroke

Publication forum classification

  • Publication forum level 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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